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جراحی قلب باز و بسته - PDA چیست؟
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PDA چیست؟

یکی از عمل هایی که در بخش ما انجام می شه عمل جراحی Patent Ductus Arteriosus هست که در این قسمت یک توضیح اجمالی که ترجمه ی یک مقاله  ی امریکایی هستش رو براتون گذاشتم:

PDA یک مشکل قلبی است که در بعضی از نوزادان پس از تولد رخ می دهد.در این بیماری جریان خون غیر طبیعی بین دو شریان بزرگ قلب ایجاد می شود.

 

قبل از تولد دو شریان بزرگ،یعنی آیورت و پولمونری،توسط یک رگ خونی با نام "مجرای شریانی" به هم متصل هستند،که این رگ قسمتی اساسی از گردش خون جنینی می باشد. 

این رگ در عرض چند دقیقه تا چند روز پس از تولد، باید مانند دیگر تغییرات موجود در جریان خون نوزاد،تغییر کرده و بسته شود.

در بعضی از نوزادان،به هر علت،مجرای شریانی باز می ماند (Patent).این مجرا،باعث قاطی شدن خون سرشار از اکسیژن از آیورتا با خون سیاهرگی و حاوی co2 بالای پولمونری  می شود؛که باعث  ایجاد کشیدگی در قلب و افزایش فشاردر شریانهای ریه می شود.

قلب سالم و قلب بیمار pda

شکل A فرم طبیعی قلب و جریان خون ،و شکل B قلب گرفتار PDA را نشان می دهد.

این بیماری گونه ای از نقص های مادرزادی است،که بلافاصله پس از تولد رخ می دهد.

اگر نوزادی دچار PDA باشد ولی  قلب دارای کارکرد نرمال است،امکان نادیده انگاشتن این نقص وجود دارد.اما در بعضی دیگر،درمان،جهت بستن این بی راهه ، اجتناب ناپذیر است.

اگر نوزادی با نقص دیگری (علاوه بر PDA) متولد شود،که این نقص باعث کاهش جریان خون از قلب به ریه ها گردد،ممکن است درمان داروئی،جهت باز نگاه داشتن Ductus Arteriosus اجرا شود.

این امرموجب برقراری جریان خون و نگه داشتن سطح اکسیژن،تا فرا رسیدن زمان انجام عمل جراحی،می گردد.

دیدگاه

PDA یک نقص مادرزادی نسبتا معمولی در امریکا می باشد.این شرایط بیشتر در نوزادان پری ترم (بطور میانگین،از هر 1,000  تولد،8 نوزاد) رخ می دهد.

 

نوزادان پری ترمی که دچار PDA هستند،درعمل،آسیب پذیرترند.این بیماری در هر دو جنس پسر و دختر به یک میزان رخ میدهد.

 



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